UNDERSTANDING WORDS FROM CONTEXT

UNDERSTANDING WORDS FROM CONTEXT


UNIT  9
&  READING COMPREHENSION

Reading Skill
UNDERSTANDING WORDS FROM CONTEXT
It is important for you to understanding that vocabulary should be learned in context. This can be done in several ways.
1.      Read the clues in the sentence(s) and try to guess what the meaning of the word is.
A familiar context will activate your old information or schema and, therefore, new meaning can then be assimilated. By relating the new word to your existing schema, you will be more likely to relate the meaning of the new words.
2.      Guess the meaning of the word. This method is good for both good and poor readers and it is superior to three other methods :
a.       Associative method – students memorize words paired with a short definition or a synonym.
b.      Category method – students are given categories in which they already know some words, learn new ones.
c.       Dictionary method – students look up words in dictionary. Then write a sentence for each other.

Now apply the two methods above in the following passage
Vocabulary in Context
Perpetuate (v)             : mengabadikan
Contined (v)               : dibatasi
Encompassing (adj)   : mencakup
Asserted (v)               : dinyatakan
Primordial nature (n) : sifat dasar
Conscience (n)           : nurani
Prelude (n)                 : pembukaan
Preservation (n)         : penjagaan
Adverse (adj)             : yang meruikan / merusak

THE BASIS OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION
Islam is not only faith in single God: it goes beyond what is in essence defined by the word “religion”. A set of practices, behavior, and observances concerning the social arena and defines a lifestyle whose objective is to perpetuate and protect the faith. Practicing islam is not confined to the private domain: it includes a community domain with a strong identity. This all encompassing characteristic thus, there is a natural aspiration towards God in the conscience and heart of every person (Nasr, 1975).
Islam teaches that the Revelation by the Prophet “goes back to the sources of the fitra, finds the original spirit of mankind, and brings them to life through the call” (Ramadhan, 1995). “If the parents do not bring up their children religiously, it is their fault if the children do not recognize God” (a Brussels Moroccan Imam). In Muslim thinking, the Qur’an enables people to learn about all sciences. The transmission of faith must therefore precede the learning of the other sciences. In several surah the Qur’an states that education is one of the duties of all Muslims, particularly parents. The surah, which provides most instruction regarding the up-bringing of a child, is the one of  Islam is in particular when the religion is being passed on to children. According to famous hadith by al-Bukhari and Muslim: “All new born babies are born according to the fitra; it is their parents who make them a Jew, a Christian or Zoroastrian.” Seyyed Nasr (1975) believes that fitra means “the primordial nature (of man), the nature be bears deep within his soul”. Entitled “Luqman” (Amdouni, 1992). At the end of surah, the children are encouraged to observe nature around them which is part of the goodness created by God. These verses, that encourage them to rely on their own observation, constitute a prelude to the development of  a scientific attitude.
But in Islam, individual responsibility is always seen also from the point of fiew of collective responsibility. The preservation of the ummah is regarded as an important  aspect of faith and dependent on the success with which believers have managed to protect their community from adverse external influences. Thus, the community must exercise some control over the behavior of its members.

  Source: Process of homogenization in Muslim Educational World inBrussels

Understanding Words
Refer back to the text and find the synonyms (words with similar meaning) of the following words.
1.      Belief                             (paragraph 1) ………………………
2.      Safeguard                       (paragraph 1) ……………………...
3.      Emphasize                     (paragraph 1) ………………………
4.      Thinks                            (paragraph 1) ……………………...
5.      Educate                          (paragraph 2) ……………………...
6.      Mistake                          (paragraph 2) ……………………...
7.      Know                             (paragraph 2) ………………………
8.      Pay attention                  (paragraph 3) ………………………
9.      Made                              (paragraph 3) ………………………
10.  protection                       (paragraph 4) ………………………


Comprehension Questions
1.      In addition to teaching about faith, what is taught by islam ?
2.      Who influences the education of a child according to al Bukhari and Muslim ?
3.      What does the fitra mean according to Seyyed Nasr ?
4.      When a child does not know God, who is held responsible for it ?
5.      What should be taught to children before they learn science ?
6.      What surah provide us the most instruction on how to educate children ?
7.      What is the Qur’an in Muslim’s thinking ?
8.      What does the Qur’an state about education ?
9.      Why is the preservation of ummah regarded as an important aspect of faith ?
10.  In Islam, who are given the responsibility to protect their community from adverse external influences ?


¨  FOCUS ON STRUCTURE

INFINITIVE

An infinitive is “to” and the “simple form of a verb” (to + V1)
Look at the example below.

I want a sandwich
              Noun
I want   to eat   a sandwich
           Infinitive
I want to eat a sandwich
            Infinitive phrase
The object of a verb is a noun (a sandwich)
The object of the verb can also be an infinitive
To eat is an infinitive. It is the object of the verbwant.
The police ordered the driver to stop
Some verbs are followed by a (pro) noun and then an infinitive
The driver was ordered to stop
The student are advised to read journals.
These verbs are followed immediately by an infinitive when they are used in the passive

COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES

a. Some verbs usually followed by an infinitive

Verb + infinitive
Hope                promise                                 seem                   expect
Plan                  agree                                     appear                 would like
Intend              offer                                      pretend                 want
Decide             refuse                                     ask                       need

b.Some verbs usually followed by (pro)noun + infinitive

Verb + (pro)noun + infinitive
Tell someone
Invite someone
Require someone
Expect someone
Advise someone
Permit someone
Order someone
Would like someone
Encourage someone
Allow someone
Force someone
Want someone
Remind someone
Warn someone
Ask someone
Need someone

c. Some verbs usually may or may not be followed by a (pro)noun object

Ask               Expect                would like              Want                     Need          

Practice: Refer back to the text “The Basis of Islamic Education”. Find out the infinitive.

Exercise: Complete the sentences below!
1.      In Islam, it is not enough to (prayer,pray) only for our parents.
2.      It is difficult to (generalize,generalizes) about American Muslims.
3.      Did Muhammad claim his propethood to (attains,attain) material gains.
4.      We’re going out for dinner. Would you like……….us ?
5.      Fred didn’t have any money, so he decided………….a job.
6.      The teacher reminded the students…………..their assignments.
7.      I was broke, so Jenny offered……………me a little money.
8.      Mrs. Allen promised…………….tomorrow.
9.      My Boss expects me…………….this work as soon as possible.
10.  The teacher seems……………..in a good mood today, don’t you think ?
11.  Lucy pretended………………the answer to my question.
12.  Someone asked me……………..this package.
13.  Jack advised me……………….a new apartment.



  SPEAKING

ASKING QUESTIONS

In a discussion, sometimes the speaker speaks a topic not understood by the listeners. It can occur either the speaker does not provide adequate information or because the listener lacks information or does not pay attention closely to the speaker. In such as case, the listeners are still able to repair the ‘missing link by asking questions. The following phrases can be used to ask for more information. The responses of the speaker to the appeal are also included.

Asking General Questions
Would you mind …….?
I was wondering if you …….?
I wonder if you could ……..?
May I ask about ……...
Would you mind if I ask about ………?

Asking for further Information
Could you be little more precise ?
I’m sorry, but could you explain in a little more detail ?
Could you give us some details about ……. ?
Would you care to elaborate on that ?
Could you expand on that ?

Questioning
It depends what you mean by ………
I am not quite sure what you mean by that.
I’m afraid I don’t quite follow your explanation.
I don’t think it’s quite as simple as that …….







Playing for Time (Responses)
That’s a very interesting question.
That’s a difficult question to answer.
I’m glad you asked that question.
You have raised an important point there.
I’m sure you will appreciate how complicated this matter is.

Saying Nothing (Responses)
Well, it’s rather difficult to say at present.
I’m afraid I don’t have enough information at my disposal to answer that.
I’m afraid I’m not in a position to comment on that.
I think we can leave the problem of ……aside for a moment, the real issue is …..
I don’t think we have enough time at our disposal to consider all the implication of this particular aspect of the problem.


?  WRITING

ESSAY WRITING
An essay is a piece of writing several paragraphs long instead of just one or two paragraph. It is written about one topic, just as a paragraph is. However, the topic of an essay is too long and too complex to discuss in one paragraph. Therefore, you must divide the topic into several paragraphs, one for each major point. Then you must tie all of the separate paragraphs together by adding an introduction and conclusion.
Writing an essay is no more difficult than writing a paragraph expect that an essay is longer. The principles of organization are the same for both, so if you can write a good paragraph, you can write a good essay.
An essay has three main parts:
1.An introductory paragraph
2.A body (at least one, but usually two or more paragraphs)
3.A concluding paragraph
The introductory paragraph consists of two parts: a few general statements about your subject to attract your reader’s attention and a thesis statement to state the specific subdivisions of your topic and/or the plan of your paper. A thesis statement for an essay is just like a topic sentence for a paragraph: It names the specific topic and the controlling idea or major subdivisions of the topic.


The body consists of one or more paragraphs. Each paragraph develops a subdivision of your topic, so the number of paragraph in the body will vary with the number of subdivisions. The paragraphs of the body are like the main supporting points of paragraph. Furthermore, just as you can organize the ideas in a paragraph by chronological order or by order of importance, you can organize the paragraphs in an essay in the same ways.
The conclusion in an essay, like the concluding sentence in a paragraph, is a summary or review of the main points discussed in the body.
The only additional element in an essay is the linking expressions between the paragraphs of the body. These are just like transition within a paragraph. You use transitions within a paragraph to connect the ideas between two sentences. Similarly, you use transitions between paragraphs to connect the ideas between them.
You can see that writing an essay is essentially the same as writing a paragraph; an essay is just longer. The chart below shows you the parts of a paragraph correspond to the parts of an essay.



































The introductory paragraph
An introductory paragraph has four purposes
1.      It introduces the topic of the essay
2.      It gives a general background of the topic
3.      It often indicates the overall “plan” of the essay
4.      It should arouse the reader’s interest in the topic

The introduction has two parts:
1.      General statements:
a.       Introduce the topic of the essay
b.      Give background information on the topic
2.      A thesis statement
a.       States the main topic
b.      Lists the subdivisions of the topic
c.       May indicate the method of organization of the entire paper
d.      Is usually the last sentence in the introductory paragraph

The Body
Because an essay is longer and more complex than a paragraph, it is even more important to organize your thoughts and to plan the body of your essay before you begin to write. The best way to do this is to make an outline.
The principles and techniques that you have already learned for a paragraph outlining can be applied to essays. You may be required during the course of your academic writing career to produce a formal outline.

The Concluding Paragraph
The concluding paragraph consists of :
a.       A summary of the main points, or a restatement of your thesis in different words
b.      Your final comment on the subject, based on the information you have provided

Let’s practice writing
Write an essay outline by choosing one of  topic suggestions below!
Topic suggestion : Islamic Education in Indonesia
Life in twentieth century
Modern technology

 

 


ENGLISH TRANSLATION TASK

Taken from English for Islamic Studies
Unit  9







By :
ZUMROTUL CHOIRIYAH
Nis : 09 . 3688


MU’AMALAH FAKULTAS SYARI’AH
INSTITUT KEISLAMAN HASYIM ASY’ARI
TEBUIRENG – JOMBANG
2009 – 2010

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